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domestically rated “AAA”, the safest level. The sale to individual investors is mainly of project-link
ed special-purpose bonds, a type of local government bond vigorously promoted by the government in re
cent years. The cash flows generated from the underlying projects will be used as the primary repayment sources.
In China, there are two types of local government bonds: general bonds and special purpose bonds. According to the country’s 2019 budget repor
t, which was approved by the top legislature earlier this month, the budgeted deficit for local governments is 930 billion yuan, up 100 billi
on yuan compared with 2018, and this fund gap will be supplemented by general bonds.
In the meantime, 2.15 trillion yuan of special purpose bonds will be issued to support la
rge infrastructure projects, such as shantytown renovation projects and railways, said the ministry.
Letting individual buyers invest in local government bonds is a way to narrow the government’s financin
g gap, said Hu Yijian, a tax professor at Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. The gap is expected to expand, as policym
akers decided to cut about 2 trillion yuan in taxes and fees this year while at the same time increase spending on investment.
inated and inter-connected, and fair and inclusive approach and forge a growth
model of vitality, a cooperation model of openness and win-win results, and a developm
ent model of balance and common benefits, so that people from across the world could share the benefits of economic globalization, Xi said.
This year marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Wang said.
During his visit, Xi, based on China’s just-concluded Two Sessions earlier this month, illu
strated to the European leaders the fine performances of the Chinese economy which had overcome multiple challenges in 2018.
Wang said Xi also introduced the newly-adopted foreign investment law, emphasizi
ng that it is necessary to use legal means to better protect intellectual property rights and attract foreign investment.
Xi pointed out that China will continue to push forward all-round reform and opening-up, promote trade and investment
liberalization and facilitation, so that European friends can better share China’s development opportunities.
eration, network traffic distribution, packaging and promotion. And it will provide exclusiv
e agent for every super partner on the platform to help the super partner make decisions and amplify the effect of their contents.
In April 2017, JD for the first time launched the shopping c
ircle function, which allows users to join online interest groups of beauty products, maternal and chi
ld products, fashion, photography and food, and share recommended products and their shopping experience.
In November 2018, the mini program for WeChat based on the shopping circle function was launched.
As new e-commerce players such as Xiaohongshu taste success from social shop
ping, online celebrity and fan economy, JD also noticed that besides the traditional “sea
rch for products” mode, for an e-commerce platform there are new opportunities in community building and user-generated content.